1. A. The allele for yellow seeds is dominant because all of the offspring have yellow seeds.

2. B. The allele for wrinkled pods must be recessive because the trait does not appear in the parent plants.


In the first case, the allele for yellow seeds is clearly dominant, most likely homozygous because all the offspring, in two generations, have the same trait.

In the second case, the allele for wrinkled pods is clearly recessive, because even though the parents do not display this trait, it appears in the offspring. Also, dominant and recessive traits are commonly displayed in a 3 to 1 ratio. Dominant traits are more common because both heterozygous and homozygous organisms display the dominant phenotype, smooth pods in this case.