9) An important effect of northern renaissance writers writing in vernacular IS B. Their works could be read in towns and cities by members of the new middle class. Because the scholars in the monasteries and the monarchs and nobles already read all the important works in the Latin language, because they knew Latin. And the distributed by merchants to readers outside Europe was afterwards with the creation of the printing press and the discovery of America. But at that time of the Renaissance the Renaissance writers translated the most important works into the vernacular language that is the language spoken by the common people of each town, it was really very important because it allowed the people and ordinary people to access books and documents to which until then only the nobles and monks acceded to know the Latin or the Greek language.
10. The correct answer is B. Sir Thomas More
He is the northern European humanist, who wrote a book that imagine a peaceful Society without private property. Utopia is the name of Sir Tomas Moro´s book. Book of the ideal state of a republic on the new island of Utopia is a book written by Thomas Moro and published in 1516. Thomas Moro imagines a fictional community based on the philosophical and political ideals of the classical world and Christianity. Utopia is a peaceful community, which establishes the common property of goods, in contrast to the system of private property and the conflictive relationship between contemporary European societies to Moro.
In question 11 the correct answer is A. The protestant reformation signify a response to the Corruption in the church.
One of the main reasons that led to the “Protestant Reformation” was the disagreement with certain practices that the high clergy of the Church was doing at that time.
The most important complaint made by Luther was that the clergy issued indulgences or forgiveness of sins in exchange for large sums of money to finance the construction of the Basilica of St. Peter and maintain ways of life of great luxury and privileges by the high clergy.
In question 12 the correct answer is D. Ulrich zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli is considered the creator of the Reformed Church of Switzerland. In 1525 he published his “Confession of Faith” where he expounded a theology largely coincident with Luther but added more radical changes in some doctrinal or practical aspects.
Among the central ideas he contributed were:
- the Eucharist is administered under the two species and the mass is suppressed,
- the images of the churches are eliminated,
- the suppression of priestly celibacy is decreed,
- a charity for the poor is established and regulated, financed with the funds obtained from the secularization of ecclesiastical property.
In question 13 the correct answer is D. Belief in predestination
Martin Luther and John Calvin differ in that the latter raised the belief that although the salvation of the soul is by faith, God has predetermined who are those who will achieve salvation. Calvin maintained that those who will be saved will make the decision of faith at the propitious moment of their own free will, but God knows everything that will happen beforehand. Luther did not raise this detail.
In question 14 the correct answer is C. Faith alone
Martin Luther gave great importance to the knowledge of the Bible and the spiritual life but maintained that to achieve the salvation of the soul, only faith is enough.