Posted in Biology

The nervous system receives and sends electrical signals throughout the body.

The nervous system is the part of an animal that contains several nerves and specialized cells called neurons which receives and sends electric signals between various parts of the body. The nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (somatic and the autonomic nervous systems).


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Posted in Biology

Describe and explain the changes in electrical activity both in receptor and in the sensory neurone as increasing pressure is applied to the Pacinian corpuscle?

Pacinian corpuscles are rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors so they respond only at the onset and offset of the stimulus. The Pacinian corpuscle has a single afferent nerve fiber. Its end is covered by a sensitive receptor membrane whose sodium channels will open when the membrane is deformed in any way. Pressure thus causes sodium to enter the neuron and create a generator potential. If this potential reaches a certain threshold nerve impulses are formed. This impulse is now transferred along the axon with the use of sodium channels and sodium/potassium pumps in the axon membrane. The magnitude of the stimulus is encoded in the frequency of impulses generated in the neuron. So the more massive or rapid the deformation of a single corpuscle, the higher the frequency of nerve impulses generated in its neuron.

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Posted in Biology

Which structure of the respiratory system plays the main role in carry out the system’s primary function? trachea pharynx alveoli nose

Answer:

alveoli

Explanation:

Alveoli are the basic functional units of respiratory system which play actual role of exchange of gases. Alveoli are tiny balloon like air sacs which exist as a single cell not as a group of cells. They are responsible for exchange of gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide in our body. As soon as we inhale with the help of nose, a lot of air full of oxygen first reaches pharynx and then trachea. From trachea it ultimately reaches alveoli. Since alveoli have air full of oxygen so the partial pressure is more at alveolar end while capillaries nearby alveoli have blood which is full of carbon dioxide so the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is more in capillaries. Now, a gradient is set up as a result of which alveoli and blood capillaries exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide passively. Oxygen molecules from alveoli tend to diffuse to capillaries while carbon dioxide molecules from capillaries tend to move towards alveoli. The movement/exchange of gases continues until an equilibrium condition is reached. After which the carbon dioxide is exhaled out of out body with the help of same respiratory tract mentioned above.

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