Answer is: C) the fact that the number of lone pairs of electrons on the central atom is greater in the case of water.
Carbon(IV) oxide is nonpolar because CO₂ is linear molecule and the oxygen atoms are symmetrical (bond angles 180°).
Water is polar because of the bent shape of the molecule.
Oxygen atom in water molecule has sp3 hybridization. The bond angle between the two hydrogen atoms is approximately 104.45°.
Oxygen atom has atomic number 8, it means it has eight protons and eight electrons, so atom has neutral charge. Oxygen is a nonmetal.
Electron configuration of oxygen atom: ₈O 1s² 2s² 2p⁴.
Oxygen atom has six valence electrons
, two lone pairs and two electrons that form two sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms.
Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6, which means it has 6 protons and six electrons. Four valence electrons are in 2s and 2p orbitals.
Electron configuration of carbon atom: ₆C 1s² 2s² 2p².
In carbon dioxide, carban has sp hybridization with no lone pairs.