For example, a calm, sunny day can be described with beautiful, wispy music played by a quartet or flute with a clear, peaceful melody line.
Contrasting to this, a windy and stormy day can be described with thunderous music with lots of rubato played by an orchestra (specifically highlighting the timpani and string section).
Finally, I would suggest listening to Vivaldi’s “The Four Seasons”! This is Vivaldi’s view on nature and how he describes it.
Hope this helps!
Feel free to message me if you have any questions!