Answer: B. city-states
Ancient Greece was dominated by independent towns called city-states. One reason for this development is its geography. The country has mountainous terrain, many isolated valleys and islands. This meant that many local centers developed, rather than a powerful capital.
Greek aristocracy also prevented the concentration of power in a monarchy. They favoured the political independence of their cities. Therefore, individual rulers were considered “tyrants” and did not last long.
Finally, the presence of the Mediterranean sea, which is easily navigable, encouraged them to spread out, and establish different colonies in times of crisis and overpopulation. These new colonies acknowledge their common background but operated independently from each other.