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When the United States entered World War I in 1917, General John J. Pershing was appointed commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) charged with assisting the allies in the fight against Germany. When he arrived in Europe, allied military leaders demanded that American troops “fill in” for depleted European divisions. Pershing refused, stating: “I do not want to appear difficult . . . [but] the American people and the American government expect that the American army shall act [independently] and shall not be dispersed here and there along the Western Front. . . . While our army will fight wherever you decide, it will not fight except as an independent American army.” Pershing’s leadership proved crucial to the allied victory. He led his forces to victory in many battles, including the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Battle of Cantigny. In October 1918, Pershing’s army helped destroy the remaining German resistance in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, resulting in the armistice that ended the war. According to the passage, how did Pershing contribute to the Allied victory? Check all that apply. 1. by allowing the AEF to fight for depleted Allied armies in Europe 2. by leading the AEF to victory in several key battles 3. by dividing the AEF into units to be led by Allied forces in Europe 4. by insisting that the AEF operate as an independent force 5. by helping the AEF and Allied forces defeat Germany

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