Posted in Biology

I believe the answer is A. hydrophobic. Inside the biological membranes are lipids (hydrophobic) molecules. As you may know the membranes are lipid bilayers. In order to place proteins, which are polymers of amino acids, you would need to create an like-to-like environment. The R groups of amino acids will interact with this hydrophobic lipid bilayer environment and will need to display the same characteristics to keep the plasma membrane intact and not cause unwanted disruption. Therefore, R groups of amino acids in biological membranes should be hydrophobic.


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Posted in Biology

Are there any good mnemonic devices for remembering functional groups? …?

Mnemonics for Functional Groups
These are possible mnemonics for the common functional groups.Vowels: The vowels “A”, “E”, and “Y” for Alkane, Alkene, and Alkyne. Remember there is no “I.” “O” and “U” would result in awkward pronunciations.Alcohol: Look for the “C-O-H” in “Alcohol.”Ether: Ethers were anesthetics used in the 1800s. Dr. Kellogg also lived at the same time. Corn Flakes are made by Kellogg’s. A rooster or wingspan (C-O-C) is the cornflake mascot.Amine: Remember the “N” stands for nitrogen.Aldehyde: This sounds like “Adelaide,” the Australian city. Australia is at the end of the Asian islands, and aldehydes are at the end of the hydrocarbon chain. The “Y” indicates a C=O double bond.Ketone: Imagine the diagonal strokes of “K” forming the C=O double bond. Carboxylic Acid: “Box” stands for boxed wine or C-O-H, alcohol. The “Y” indicates a C=O double bond.Ester: This sounds like “Estelle” George Costanza’s mother in the TV show Seinfeld. George’s nickname was Koko or Coco. So think of O=C-O-C.Amide: Amine with a “D”. D for double.

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Posted in Biology

Pyruvatic acids are formed during which stage of cellular respiration

Answer:

The correct answer is glycolysis.

Explanation:

An array of reactions, which derive energy from glucose by dissociating it into three-carbon molecules known as pyruvic acid is collectively known as glycolysis. The organisms in which cellular respiration takes place, glycolysis is the initial stage of the procedure. The process glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of a cell, and it can be differentiated down into two prime phases, that is, the energy-releasing phase, and the energy-requiring phase.

Posted in Biology

Describe the structure of a chloroplast. How do the inner membranes differ from the outer membrane?

Chloroplasts are organelles present in plant cells and some eukaryotic organisms. Chloroplasts are the most important plastids found in plant cells. It is the structure in a green plant cell in which photosynthesis occurs.

Chloroplast is one of the three types of plastids. The chloro

plasts take part in the process of photosynthesis and it is of great biological importance. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. All green plant take part in the process of photosynthesis which converts energy into sugars and the byproduct of the process is oxygen that all animals breathe. This process happens in chloroplasts.
 
The distri
bution of chloroplasts is homogeneous in the cytoplasm of the cells and in certain cells chloroplasts become concentrated around the nucleus or just beneath the plasma membrane. A typical plant cell might contain about 50 chloroplasts per cell.

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