Answer: Atmosphere can be broadly divided into four distinct layers based on their altitude and temperature.
These layers are- Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere.
1) Troposphere ( extends upto 18 km from earth surface)– a layer that is closest to the surface of earth. It is called zone of weather as all the weather phenomenon ( such as storm, wind, precipitation, formation of clouds) occur in this layer. Temperature decreases with altitude in this layer.
2) Stratosphere (extends from 18 km to 50 km) – a layer above troposphere, where temperature increases with increase in altitude.
A boundary between stratosphere and mesosphere where temperature remains constant as elevation increases is called Stratopause.
3) Mesosphere (extends 50 km upto 85 km) – a layer above stratosphere, where temperature decreases with increase in altitude.
A boundary between mesosphere and thermosphere, where temperature remains constant as elevation increases is called Mesopause.
4) Thermosphere (extends from 85 km upto 600 km)– a layer above mesosphere, where temperature again increases with increase in altitude. It is an extremely hot layer because of absorption of X rays and UV rays.
Thus, correct match for the question is-
Troposphere -A) Layer closest to the Earth where all weather occurs.
Mesosphere- E) begins between 50-60km and decreases in temperature as elevation increases.
Mesopause- C) temperature remains constant as elevation increases.
Stratosphere -B) temperature increases as elevation increases.
Stratopause -D) temperature remains at a constant zero degrees Celsius as elevation increases.