Answer: Atmosphere can be broadly divided into four distinct layers based on their altitude and temperature.

These layers are- Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, and Thermosphere.

1) Troposphere ( extends upto 18 km from earth surface)– a layer that is closest to the surface of earth. It is called zone of weather as all the weather phenomenon ( such as storm, wind, precipitation, formation of clouds) occur in this layer. Temperature decreases with altitude in this layer.

2) Stratosphere (extends from 18 km to 50 km) – a layer above troposphere, where temperature increases with increase in altitude.

A boundary between stratosphere and mesosphere where temperature remains constant as elevation increases  is called Stratopause.

3) Mesosphere (extends 50 km upto 85 km) – a layer above stratosphere, where temperature decreases with increase in altitude.

A boundary between mesosphere and thermosphere, where temperature remains constant as elevation increases  is called Mesopause.

4) Thermosphere (extends from 85 km upto 600 km)–  a layer above mesosphere, where temperature again increases with increase in altitude. It is an extremely hot layer because of absorption of X rays and UV rays.

Thus, correct match for the question is-  

Troposphere -A) Layer closest to the Earth where all weather occurs.

Mesosphere- E) begins between 50-60km and decreases in temperature as elevation increases.

Mesopause- C) temperature remains constant as elevation increases.

Stratosphere -B) temperature increases as elevation increases.

Stratopause -D) temperature remains at a constant zero degrees Celsius as elevation increases.