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Abridged from Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. What does the historical context of the writing demonstrate or tell you? (10 points) Question 3 options: 1) Even in that time, there was a lower, middle, and upper class of society. 2) Unlike today, people in that time were all of the same class in society. 3) There were no middle class citizens in that time; only very rich and very poor. 4) Ideas of class separation did not become common until after that period in time.

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What Makes the Galápagos Islands so Special? (1) The Galápagos Islands are a special place. (2) Most famously, the islands had a major effect on the work of naturalist Charles Darwin. (3) His visit there in 1835 was important to his study of animal species. (4) Today, the islands are the dream destination of many biologists and lovers of unique birds and reptiles. (5) The Galápagos Islands are interesting in part because of their geography. (6) They are located about 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, in the Pacific Ocean. (7) There are no other islands nearby, so that makes them quite isolated. (8) The major islands are made up of a single volcano, though sometimes more than one. (9) Volcanic activity continues there to this day. (10) These dramatic processes provide scientists with information about how the islands first came to be. (11) The Galápagos Islands are of special interest to biologists because of their rare plant and animal life. (12) Scientists believe the islands’ location is a major reason why the islands are unique. (13) The Galápagos Islands are located right where three major ocean currents come together. (14) These currents are believed to have helped animals, such as seals and sea lions, to swim to the islands. (15) Such animals would not normally be found so far from the mainland. (16) The currents also cause the water temperatures to vary. (17) This makes it possible for different sea animals to live there than other places. (18) The islands’ location and the ocean currents have allowed some very unusual creatures to develop. (19) Among the most famous are the world’s largest tortoises. (20) Giant tortoises can be found on the islands called Seychelles, in the Indian Ocean. (21) The tortoises on the Galápagos can weigh up to 550 pounds and live for over 100 years! (8) The major islands are made up of a single volcano, though sometimes more than one. (9) Volcanic activity continues there to this day. Without changing the meaning or omitting important information, what is the best way to combine sentences 8 and 9? A. The major islands are made up of one volcano or sometimes made up of more, and these volcanoes have activity sometimes today. B. The volcanic activity continues there even to this day, and the major islands are made up of a volcano or two. C. Volcanic activity continues even to this day on islands with a volcano, and these islands may have more than one. D. The major islands are made up of one or more volcanoes, and volcanic activity continues there today.

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Which of these excerpts from Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice highlights the condescending attitude of upper-class characters? 1. Her report was highly favourable.Sir William had been delighted with him. He was quite young, wonderfully handsome, extremely agreeable, and, to crown the whole, he meant to be at the next assembly with a large party. Nothing could be more delightful! To be fond of dancing was a certain step towards falling in love; and very lively hopes of Mr. Bingley’s heart were entertained. 2. Jane was as much gratified by this as her mother could be, though in a quieter way. Elizabeth felt Jane’s pleasure. Mary had heard herself mentioned to Miss Bingley as the most accomplished girl in the neighbourhood; and Catherine and Lydia had been fortunate enough never to be without partners, which was all that they had yet learnt to care for at a ball. They returned, therefore, in good spirits to Longbourn, the village where they lived, and of which they were the principal inhabitants. They found Mr. Bennet still up. 3. They were rather handsome, had been educated in one of the first private seminaries in town, had a fortune of twenty thousand pounds, were in the habit of spending more than they ought, and of associating with people of rank, and were therefore in every respect entitled to think well of themselves, and meanly of others. They were of a respectable family in the north of England; a circumstance more deeply impressed on their memories than that their brother’s fortune and their own had been acquired by trade. 4. The manner in which they spoke of the Meryton assembly was sufficiently characteristic. Bingley had never met with more pleasant people or prettier girls in his life; everybody had been most kind and attentive to him; there had been no formality, no stiffness; he had soon felt acquainted with all the room; and, as to Miss Bennet, he could not conceive an angel more beautiful. Darcy, on the contrary, had seen a collection of people in whom there was little beauty and no fashion, for none of whom he had felt the smallest interest, and from none received either attention or pleasure. Miss Bennet he acknowledged to be pretty, but she smiled too much.

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