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You must read this short story to understand the question: It all began with Effie’s getting something in her eye. It hurt very much indeed, and it felt something like a red-hot spark—only it seemed to have legs as well, and wings like a fly. Effie rubbed and cried—not real crying, but the kind your eye does all by itself without your being miserable inside your mind—and then she went to her father to have the thing in her eye taken out. Effie’s father was a doctor, so of course he knew how to take things out of eyes. When he had gotten the thing out, he said: “This is very curious.” Effie had often got things in her eye before, and her father had always seemed to think it was natural—rather tiresome and naughty perhaps, but still natural. He had never before thought it curious. Effie stood holding her handkerchief to her eye, and said: “I don’t believe it’s out.” People always say this when they have had something in their eyes. “Oh, yes—it’s out,” said the doctor. “Here it is, on the brush. This is very interesting.” Effie had never heard her father say that about anything that she had any share in. She said: “What?” The doctor carried the brush very carefully across the room, and held the point of it under his microscope—then he twisted the brass screws of the microscope, and looked through the top with one eye. “Dear me,” he said. “Dear, dear me! Four well-developed limbs; a long caudal appendage; five toes, unequal in lengths, almost like one of the Lacertidae, yet there are traces of wings.” The creature under his eye wriggled a little in the castor oil, and he went on: “Yes; a bat-like wing. A new specimen, undoubtedly. Effie, run round to the professor and ask him to be kind enough to step in for a few minutes.” “You might give me sixpence, Daddy,” said Effie, “because I did bring you the new specimen. I took great care of it inside my eye, and my eye does hurt.” The doctor was so pleased with the new specimen that he gave Effie a shilling, and presently the professor stepped round. He stayed to lunch, and he and the doctor quarreled very happily all the afternoon about the name and the family of the thing that had come out of Effie’s eye. But at teatime another thing happened. Effie’s brother Harry fished something out of his tea, which he thought at first was an earwig. He was just getting ready to drop it on the floor, and end its life in the usual way, when it shook itself in the spoon—spread two wet wings, and flopped onto the tablecloth. There it sat, stroking itself with its feet and stretching its wings, and Harry said: “Why, it’s a tiny newt!” The professor leaned forward before the doctor could say a word. “I’ll give you half a crown for it, Harry, my lad,” he said, speaking very fast; and then he picked it up carefully on his handkerchief. “It is a new specimen,” he said, “and finer than yours, Doctor.” It was a tiny lizard, about half an inch long—with scales and wings. So now the doctor and the professor each had a specimen, and they were both very pleased. But before long these specimens began to seem less valuable. For the next morning, when the knife-boy was cleaning the doctor’s boots, he suddenly dropped the brushes and the boot and the blacking, and screamed out that he was burnt. And from inside the boot came crawling a lizard as big as a kitten, with large, shiny wings. “Why,” said Effie, “I know what it is. It is a dragon like the one St. George killed.” And Effie was right. That afternoon Towser was bitten in the garden by a dragon about the size of a rabbit, which he had tried to chase, and the next morning all the papers were full of the wonderful “winged lizards” that were appearing all over the country. The papers would not call them dragons, because, of course, no one believes in dragons nowadays—and at any rate the papers were not going to be so silly as to believe in fairy stories. At first there were only a few, but in a week or two the country was simply running alive with dragons of all sizes, and in the air you could sometimes see them as thick as a swarm of bees. They all looked alike except as to size. They were green with scales, and they had four legs and a long tail and great wings like bats’ wings, only the wings were a pale, half-transparent yellow, like the gear-boxes on bicycles. Question: How would you summarize the events in the story so far? Be sure to use details from the text to support your answer. Please Help!

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Chapter 1 “You know, hardly anyone ever needs to do a three-point turn anymore,” said Justin, trying to help Becky calm down. “Oh, so it’s not a useful skill AND I am probably going to fail the driving test because I can’t do it anyway,” Becky said, raising her voice for emphasis. “That should make me feel like a million bucks when I flunk.” Justin was riding with Becky so she could take her driving test. He had volunteered for the job because he thought she would be less nervous with him than with their mom, but so far, he wasn’t sure he was making any difference. “Slow down, your turn is coming up here,” he said, looking ahead. “I know, I know,” she replied, “I’ve been here before remember—the last time I flunked.” Justin was pretty sure if he had let her miss the turn, things would only have deteriorated further, but he wasn’t sure he was fond of being the scapegoat for Becky’s anxiety. “Listen, you need to take a few deep breaths,” he said, hoping he could help her at least relax a bit. “Being nervous won’t help you with the three-point turn or anything else you have to do. Hey, did you just take that turn without your turn signal on?” This was going to be harder than he thought. “Stop yelling at me,” Becky replied, clearly frustrated, “I can’t concentrate.” “Look, you need to stop and get yourself together here,” Justin started. “It is not just about passing the driving test. I don’t want to get in an accident, so pull into that parking lot.” Becky drove into the office building’s parking lot where Justin was pointing. Justin knew they were less than a mile from the licensing office, and if she continued in this condition, he’d be having this same discussion three months from now when she tried the test again for the third time. “You need to get a grip,” he started after she put the car in park, “because you have studied and practiced driving all year. You know this stuff inside and out, backwards and forwards. What are you so nervous about?” “I don’t know, I don’t know,” Becky wailed, resting her head on the steering wheel. “I just get so tired of failing.” Listening quietly as Becky sobbed, Justin realized this was about much more than a driving test. He also knew if he didn’t find a way to help Becky things would just get worse. Chapter 2 Justin took a deep breath and collected his thoughts. Becky was an unbelievably consistent straight-A student. It was Justin who got the bad grades in school, and Justin who had to repeat every math class he’d ever taken. It was Justin who wished he could get the grades Becky got. Some things came easier for Justin: He was athletic, handy with tools, and good at making the best of whatever life threw at him. Mom called him her “lemons into lemonade” kid. But for the most part, Becky succeeded easily, whereas Justin had to work and work to just get a passing grade. Rather than having Becky catalogue all the things she supposedly “failed” at, Justin decided to try an alternative approach, one that wouldn’t remind him of all the ways he had failed. “Okay, Becky, let’s assume for a moment you fail this test again. What is the worst thing that could happen?” he asked. “I would be the oldest kid at school without a license and be humiliated,” she replied. Justin thought he heard a bit of panic in her voice but continued with his plan. “Yes, but won’t we still have to drive to school together for at least one more year anyway?” he asked. “Yes, but…” she started. “And who will know, if you don’t tell anyone except your friends, that you don’t have your license? You know Mom can’t afford another car just for you, right?” “Yes,” she said quietly. “So what difference does it make, really,” he said. “Another three months to wait in the grand scheme of your life doesn’t seem like all that long, right?” “I suppose not,” she said. Justin could tell she was breathing more slowly now. “Besides,” he said, “I would miss all the practice driving with you,” and for good measure he reached over and pinched her arm. “Ow,” she said, hitting back at him, “that hurt.” “So let’s go do this, okay? “Okay,” she said. Becky cranked up the car, backed slowly out of the parking spot and drove up to the parking lot’s exit. Justin noticed, as they waited for the traffic to clear, that she had remembered the turn signal. Use Chapters 1 and 2 to answer the following question: Which best summarizes the plot of the story? Justin and Becky agree to share the car after realizing they will both be drivers. Justin gives Becky a reason to try harder in school and in driving practice. Justin helps Becky mentally prepare for her driving test by being thoughtful. Justin makes it clear he thinks Becky is being overly dramatic.

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Which part of this excerpt from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Four Freedoms” speech demonstrates the use of logos? Let us say to the democracies: “We Americans are vitally concerned in your defense of freedom. We are putting forth our energies, our resources and our organizing powers to give you the strength to regain and maintain a free world. We shall send you, in ever-increasing numbers, ships, planes, tanks, guns. This is our purpose and our pledge.” (a) In fulfillment of this purpose we will not be intimidated by the threats of dictators that they will regard as a breach of international law or as an act of war our aid to the democracies which dare to resist their aggression. (b) And when the dictators, if the dictators, are ready to make war upon us, they will not wait for an act of war on our part. They did not wait for Norway or Belgium or the Netherlands to commit an act of war. (c) Their only interest is in a new one-way international law, which lacks mutuality in its observance, and, therefore, becomes an instrument of oppression. The happiness of future generations of Americans may well depend upon how effective and how immediate we can make our aid felt. No one can tell the exact character of the emergency situations that we may be called upon to meet. (d) The Nation’s hands must not be tied when the Nation’s life is in danger. (e) Yes, and we must all prepare–all of us prepare–to make the sacrifices that the emergency– almost as serious as war itself–demands. Whatever stands in the way of speed and efficiency in defense–in defense preparations of any kind–must give way to the national need.

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