APA Referencing vs Harvard Referencing

Essay writing and Academic writing are ruthless without proper referencing to the originating sources. There are varieties of referencing style that can help you to prove authenticity of your research paper. American Psychological Association and Harvard are two of the most important referencing styles used by the researchers while providing source of their information in the academic or professional documents. Harvard is mostly used in United Kingdom and related countries whereas APA is the referencing style for American education system. The main elements of both referencing styles are somehow the same but there is a bit change in their outlook. Here I will demonstrate three examples in term of book referencing, journal referencing and Website Referencing.

Book:

APA Style:

Prid, W. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (2004). Distribution Decision. In Marketing (pp. 389-392). London: Cengage Learning.

Harvard Style:

Prid, W.M. and Ferrell, O.C. (2004) ‘Distribution Decision’, in Marketing, London: Cengage Learning.

The basic difference is the writing style as Harvard demonstrates the chapter as ‘Distribution Decision’ as compared to APA style of Normal Writng criteria. The important elemetns are somehow the same in both styles but it can differ in different styles of Harvard as there are four basic styles of Harvard in term of Exeter, Leeds, AGPS and Angilia. The page number is not focused in Harvard style as the major difference.

Journal:

APA Style:

Cox, J., & Dale, B. (2001). Service quality and e-commerce: an exploratory analysis. Managing Service Quality , 11 (2), 121-131.

Harvard Style:

Cox, J., & Dale, B. (2001). Service quality and e-commerce: an exploratory analysis. , 11 (2), 121-131.’, Managing Service Quality, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 121-131.

The placement of the journal name is the major difference.

Website:

APA Style:

Gloeckler, G. (2013). Notre Dame’s Mendoza Takes No. 1 Ranking, Again. Retrieved Sep 18, 2013, from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-03-20/notre-dames-mendoza-takes-no-dot-1- ranking-again

Harvard Style:

Gloeckler, G. (2013) Notre Dame’s Mendoza Takes No. 1 Ranking, Again, [Online], Available: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-03-20/notre-dames-mendoza-takes-no-dot-1-ranking-again [18 Sep 2013].

The elements of “from” and “Available” along with the writing style of access date are the major differences. There is also a difference of using indent in the reference style while comparing Harvard and APA Styles of referencing.